Then Jesus fulfills the New Covenant on the cross. The New Covenant is defined as
“a covenant between God and his people that is anticipated in the Old Testament (Jer 31:31) and fulfilled in the New Testament (Luke 22:20; 1 Cor 11:25; Heb 9:15; 12:24). The new covenant involves forgiveness of sin, spiritual transformation, and the fulfillment of God’s promises to Israel.”
Before going further into this covenant, I want to review some of what has lead up to this New Covenant: The unconditional Abrahamic Covenant was the first major covenant. It promised land, seed and blessings. In addition, it had conditional blessings. To enjoy the blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant, Israel needed to be obedient to the laws of God recorded in the Mosaic Covenant, which was given in conjunction with the Abrahamic Covenant. History records Israel was incapable to achieve the obedience required of the Mosaic Covenant. As a result, Israel could not experience the blessings. The only way to have the blessings was forgiveness for sins, a new heart of obedience and enablement from God. Thus, enters the assurance of these supplies from the New Covenant predicted in Jeremiah 31:31-34.
The definition above and Jeremiah 31:31-34 describe almost exactly what Pentecost states is needed for Israel. This context can be summarized this way: “God’s New Covenant will give Israel the inner ability to obey His righteous standards and thus to enjoy His blessings.” The New Covenant is then further established in Jeremiah 32:37-42, Ezekiel 16:60-62 and 36:24-32.
This covenant directly relates to the Abrahamic Covenant because of the original promises of land, seed, and blessings given. Again, the Davidic Covenant advances the seed promises, and now the New Covenant advances and assures the blessing promises of the Abrahamic Covenant. This New Covenant assures the conservation of Israel as a nation and ultimate restoration to the land originally given through the Abrahamic Covenant (Jeremiah 31:38-40). In addition, it provides for a new mind so that the nation may know God, and for a new heart so that those in the nation may love God. It promises the indwelling of the Holy Spirit who will enable them to walk in obedience to the demands of God. And because of this covenant, the blessings Israel never found through the Law [Mosaic Covenant] will at last be experienced.
The important thing to note here is that Jesus’ death and resurrection was the spiritual fulfillment or ratification (i.e. relationship with God, forgiveness of sins, a new mind, a new heart and the Holy Spirit) of the New Covenant, while the material fulfillment for Israel (restoration to the land, rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem and the temple becoming the center of worship again) is yet to come. (Material: Jer. 32:37, 33:11 Ezek. 11:17, 36:28-35; 37:21-22, 25; Jer. 31:38-40; Ezek. 37:27-28. Spiritual: Jer. 31:34, 33:8; Ezek. 36:25; Micah 7:18-20; Isa. 59:21; Jer. 31:33; 32:39, 41; Ezek. 36:26; Joel 2:28-29).